The Early During the 3rd/9th century, the break-up of the political unity of theIslamic world accelerated. In the midst of this political decentralization, many Muslim jurists began to think and write about what constituted just government in an Umma where the Abbasid Caliphate was not universally recognized nor within its “domains” was it the only source of authority and power. Their discussions did not take place in a vacuum, but were part of both an ongoing vibrant intellectual tradition and the multiple contexts of political, military, social and economic events going on around them. One major factor in these contexts was the rise and spread of the Mamluk institution, a system of military slavery which originated in 3rd/9th-century Iraq, and soon spread across much of the Nile-to-Oxus region. This talk will provide an overview of these developments as well as identify some of the major `Ulama’ who addressed these issues head-on in their writings.
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